INTUITION IN THE COMMERCIAL WORLD
CAI’s EXPERIMENT IN BUSINESS CONSULTING*
“In the future intuitive leadership will not be a luxury or a passing fad, it will be at the heart of business. The underlying requirements of efficiency, productivity and profitability will not disappear, but the means of attaining them will no longer be the sole product of the intellect.” [Barbara Schultz]
- INTUITION IN THE COMMERCIAL WORLD
- CAI’s EXPERIMENT IN BUSINESS CONSULTING*
- Journey to the East
- Why Japan?
- Intuition in Government
- Verification and Corroboration
- Intuitive Consultants’ Perspectives
- Possible Abuses
- Background of Intuition in Business
- Intuition in the Future Business World
With every decade since the 1960’s intuition has become more widely acclaimed as an important and even essential aspect of creativity and decision making in commercial and similar organizations in the United States, Great Britain and other Western countries. Articles on intuition have appeared in prominent magazines such as Fortune, Forbes and The Wall Street Journal. Training seminars in decision making, creativity, “personal effectiveness” and intuition development have arisen at all levels of the commercial world, from sales teams and departmental managers to vice presidents and CEOs. A few major universities have added courses on creativity and the intuitive arts to their MBA (Master in Business Administration) curricula. Intuitive consultants to businesses are finding their services ever more in demand. Old jokes about “female intuition” are gradually giving way to serious discussions on what its male counterpart might be.
This burst of enthusiasm is all very well but it’s quite clear from the speeches and writings that most of these outspoken leaders do not understand what intuition is, other than a vague term for their smart decisions, fortunate insights, and good guesses. These advantageous discoveries may be highly intuitive but are more likely due to an active imagination, a refined reasoning ability, a subtle sensory signal or just a good memory. All of these mental traits can function partially unconsciously, and a lack of awareness of them does not magically transform them into intuition. And what about the insights that were self-critical or revealed mistakes—were they also intuitive? Like many a scientist or artist amazed by his creative breakthroughs, it is especially easy for an excited businessman to label his accomplishment with the exotic title of “intuition,” thereby building up his ego and defusing any attempt to look deeper.
Nevertheless, the fact remains that some of these businessmen’s decisions and ideas could not possibly have been obtained by rational and sensory means alone from the meager data available at the time. Intuition must have played an essential role.
This chapter describes CAI’s experience in bringing an expert intuitive into the executive boardrooms of several companies. We then look at some of the novel issues that can arise in intuitive consultation and draw some conclusions on the prospect for applying intuition in social organizations in general.
Journey to the East
In the period 1985-89 CAI provided 24 intuitive consultations to 20 Japanese companies which varied from small family businesses to firms having thousands of employees. The contacts were provided through a Japanese consulting firm whose president, Yukio Funai, had utilized CAI’s services previously for both his own firm and personal counsel. He set up the appointments for us and provided a capable guide and interpreter.
The consulting procedure was always the same. CAI’s expert intuitive [CN] and this author entered each company with no prior information about its name, products, management, market, policies or even location. After personal introductions to the company staff—the president or CEO and usually a few board members, vice-presidents and project directors—I opened the meeting with a brief orientation on how intuition functions, what we were offering and how to make best use of the capabilities of the intuitive. I explained that their questions should be direct and simple, without explanations of why they wanted the information they sought, what had already transpired in their thinking and planning, or any background information. For the next two to six hours the intuitive responded to the clients’ questions, occasionally volunteering information not specifically requested.
Typical Questions Asked
This section lists the most common kinds of questions asked and the range of issues and situations for which our clients sought intuitive information and advice.
- Why is a particular product (or service) not selling? What can be done to make it more successful?
- Where should we locate our new sales outlet (research center, manufacturing facility, administrative office, etc.)? Should we build or buy? When to do so?
- How can we best deal with particular government regulations, labor organizations, tax laws, import-export restrictions, licensing, security requirements, etc.?
- What is the best way to market a particular new product or service: where to sell it and to whom, best timing, best packaging, how to present it, type of advertising, sales effort, etc.
- Please identify new product possibilities, explain where to locate new facilities and adapt to forthcoming changes in Japanese tastes and economy.
- How can we best cooperate with external collaborative partners such as subcontractors, ownership companies, suppliers, members of joint projects, etc.?
- Which of our current company officers would make the best next company president (and similarly for other positions and candidates)?
- How can our company accommodate to future social changes in the national market, within the evolving international situation, in public tastes and preferences, in the labor force, in financial markets, etc.?
- How can we best work with various employee groups such as unions, women, unproductive workers, near-retirees, dissatisfied employees, unappreciated teams, etc.?
- What particular opportunities and challenges are coming up in the future for our company?
Types of Companies and Issues
The section describes a few representative examples of particular kinds of companies and topics and the intuitive’s broad response:
- A nationwide green tea company. The company’s questions dealt first with the status of the tea business in Japan and especially how the company should deal with confusing fluctuations in the consumer market. For each of four or five types of teas being produced, the intuitive provided information about forthcoming shifts in consumer tastes and how the competition would be responding to these changes. Also covered were: a strategy for achieving their sales goals; the best location and timing for opening a new retail store; where and when to relocate the corporate offices; some development options for management personnel; an opportunity for international expansion; how to respond to a growing market for herbal teas; and the unrecognized medicinal values of certain of their tea products. Finally, he dealt with personal issues for the company president.
- A diversified longshoremen company. Board Members raised a broad assortment of issues in a full-day session. The intuitive helped them determine which of three sites under consideration for major new construction would work the best for them, in view of a complex interplay of external factors. He also provided information on how the company might market a poorly positioned product they had bought in large quantity and were “stuck with.” For handling labor unrest among longshoremen he offered an unusual approach involving an internal safety program. He also discussed ways to redefine the president’s role within the company; a few preferred locations for future branch offices; and how to procure a certain government license normally difficult to obtain.
- A life insurance company. Company officers posed questions on a variety of financial, management and health issues. The intuitive indicated (in 1987) that there would be an economic recession in Japan, U.S. and Europe in 1989-91, including a dramatic drop in the value of the yen—first to 130¥ per U.S. dollar, then to 120¥ in two to three months, and in the following year to nearly 100¥. He described the impact of the recession on this company. He also answered several questions about a large multinational project in China in which the company was involved with the Soviet Union and described future changes in the positions of the project partners over the next few years and how to prepare for these changes. He also offered counsel on setting up a Life Extension Institute, which the company was considering as part of a long-term expansion program; the possible use of pharmaceuticals employed in Chinese medicine; and a strategy to deal with government resistance to a certain new technology for handling patients’ medical records.
- A kimono manufacturing company. This small, old family-run business was having difficulty accommodating to changes in the market for kimonos. They explained that kimonos are now commonly made from plastic fabric instead of silk, which require different methods of manufacture; anyway, young Japanese women are no longer so interested in these traditional but costly items of dress. The intuitive proposed a few alternative fabric products that would soon become profitable in Japan, ideas that had not occurred to the owners. He also described how their existing products could be marketed differently to appeal to young Japanese women. Finally, a tricky family problem was addressed: the young daughter, soon to inherit the business from her aging parents, had a different career in mind for herself, so her disinterest and immanent departure was threatening the company’s survival.
- A large department store. Two all-day visits with the Board of Directors of the largest retail store in Tokyo permitted the intuitive to advise on many issues in strategic planning, locations for branch stores, finances, personnel and topics similar to those just mentioned for other companies. Other Japanese companies for whom CAI consulted were three discount retail stores, a large real estate and property management firm, three health food manufacturers, an Alaska fisheries company, a biochemical research laboratory, a computer software company, an electrical appliance wholesaler and a major seaweed producer.
The intuitive provided unrequested security information for three companies.
For one of the discount retail stores he described an employee who was embezzling company funds. The president recognized the embezzler from the description given and admitted he had suspected the man but had found too little evidence to accuse him.
Second, he told the skeptical president of a large computer software company that his company had a secret contract with the U.S. agency NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The president was shocked but admitted it. The contract agency was actually NSA (the National Security Agency), not NASA, but NSA was routing the funding thorough NASA. The president was noticeably attentive for the balance of the session and had many questions.
Third, during the meeting with the large insurance company involved in a large international project (mentioned above), the intuitive sensed that one of the four men present at the meeting was a spy, and that the meeting room was being bugged through his watch. He said nothing, but when the meeting was over he took the company president aside and asked him, “Please call me this evening from a pay phone so I may speak with you privately.” As we left the building we noticed that a Soviet cultural exchange office occupied the rooms immediately below the meeting room. The requested phone call took place, and we were both a bit nervous until safely on board our homeward flight the next morning.
CAI received a mail request much earlier to advise the research and development laboratory of a major cosmetics company in Japan. The scientist who wrote us wanted to create a line of cosmetics that were organic and “alive” instead of relying on traditional chemicals, so as to treat the skin as a living part of the human body. The CAI intuitive [JF] provided detailed descriptions of ingredients that could be used for this purpose, others to be avoided and how these ingredients should be prepared and applied to the skin for the best effects. For example, he recommended that one of the preparations be exposed to direct sunlight during manufacture. He explained that many person’s skin disorders arise from certain unsympathetic attitudes, and how one may correct these disorders through a combination of cosmetic preparations, attitudinal changes and mental exercises.
This information was sent to the client but we received a response only much later to say that she found the suggestions fascinating. She was anxious to try them out but had not yet able to persuade her management on the novel approach. The lesson we learned here was that it is important to work with those in a company who not only desire the information and have prepared their questions but are also in a position to actually validate and apply the answers.
CAI was often asked: why were your consulting clients Japanese and not U.S. companies? A simple explanation would be that CAI’s connections arose through our fortuitous Japanese contact, as mentioned above. However, a more valid reason appears to lie behind this good fortune. Two factors seem to be key.
First, unlike U.S. companies, Japanese firms tend to function “top down”; that is, they operate with a strong base of authority from the company president. Japanese management staff tend to listen well to their staff and employees but the final decisions come from the top: the president’s directives are accepted and followed to the letter. If he decides to call in an intuitive consultant, for example, his board can be expected to politely accept his decision as “a fine idea.” This attitude toward leadership is not unique to Japan, of course, but it is typical there and has a long tradition.
Western management functions differently. The American CEO still has the ultimate authority but he relies much more heavily on the bilateral support and agreement of his senior staff. Relations tend to be less formal—not impolite but more openly interactive, candid and outspoken. The game is more one of persuasion and argument than patient, polite discussion and unquestioned authority. A typical CEO who proposed to hire an intuitive consultant would probably be confronted and even ridiculed by his colleagues, though he might quietly arrange a private session for himself. (CAI provided several such combined counseling-consulting sessions for individual executives.)
The second reason for “why Japan?” lies closer to the intuitive process itself. The Japanese have the tradition of being a very intuitive people, meaning that, in comparison with Westerners, they tend to rely on their inner sense of matters more than their intellect, and not only in business. In ordinary relationships they are not so inclined to explain or defend their choices and actions. If reasons are offered they are likely to be only polite ones and not necessarily even correct. The listener understands this.
In typical Japanese business meetings a kind of “group intuition” is the norm. (I have watched this process in a dozen technical meetings.) The meetings were almost always quiet and contemplative. The participants’ remarks tended to be brief, modest, to the point, slowly spoken and typically separated by long pauses. Individuals who offered ideas and insights tended to present them to the group deferentially and impersonally, so they appear to emerge naturally from the group. I never observed anyone seek personal credit or praise for his contribution.
I cannot say the same from parallel experience in American company meetings. Some humility is normally expected but the American is accustomed to a more pushy practice in which almost everyone present is outspoken, the participants compete for talk time and they advance their own views persuasively, not necessarily listening well to their colleagues.
There is also a long-standing tradition in Japan to honor leaders who have strong intuitive insight, bypassing reasons and arguments. This characteristic can be seen in the high respect given her best leaders and visionaries. They also exhibit a tolerant acceptance of the seers and fortune tellers who circulate on Japanese streets. While a Japanese businessman would not take sidewalk counsel under any name, he is quietly tolerant of such practices—”they might be right”—and remains respectful of their place within his cultural tradition. From a Western perspective we would say that the Japanese are credulous, but this would be unfair in the face of their striking carefulness before making decisions, which are often highly intuitive.
I am told that the scene painted above is not as widespread nowadays as it was three decades ago when CAI’s visits took place. Western modes of group interaction have been invading Japanese business practices and are gradually being accepted and incorporated.
“To my mind, organizational effectiveness does not lie in that narrow-minded concept called ‘rationality’; it lies in a blend of clear-headed logic and powerful intuition. [Society] has paid a terrible price by rejecting intuition over the course of almost a century.” [Henry Mintzberg]
Intuition in Government
While on a visit to Washington, DC. in the mid-1980s I visited a few “closet supporters” of intuition in the U.S. government. These visits were set up by C. B. “Scott” Jones,” an advisor at that time to Senator Claiborne Pell (D, RI). I was eager to learn how these government managers were using their intuition as they carried out their work and administered their departments, and especially how they interacted with their colleagues when intuition was involved.
They reported unanimously that they felt their insights helped them in their work, though they found little opportunity to acknowledge and speak out on their experiences or even to collaborate with one another. In the conservative government environment such talk was not welcome so they remained isolated in their intuitive activities. They say they felt they had to operate inconspicuously just to preserve their credibility and remain effective in their positions.
Verification and Corroboration
In view of the privacy under which most businesses operate I chose not to tape record our meetings or to take notes other than a few reminders made in the evening from business cards. I think this practice helped to put everyone more at ease, even if it was not strictly necessary. In any case we could expect few opportunities to check the intuitive information given since we did not have access to company records or the full context of the consultation.
Also, consulting information tends to be complex and advisory rather than factual. By its nature it is difficult to assess its accuracy and value to the company or even to properly verify that predicted events actually occurred. The intuitive’s predictive statements may have been already known or reasonably anticipated by our host, or they may have been just testing the intuitive. The client’s expression of satisfaction, for whatever it is worth, was usually the only measure of success.
In Japan this barrier was no less since we knew at the start very little about Japanese society, its infrastructure and its commercial world, not to mention the alien language and the many cultural assumptions that lie hidden within it.
In spite of these limitations the company representatives almost always confirmed before the meeting was over several factual portions of the intuitive information. We were also able to confirm later from news reports from Japan, and from return visits to four of the companies, several pieces of unusual or precautionary information. For example, the intuitive’s predictive statement about the declining value of the yen (mentioned above) surprised our hosts (and me!) when it was given, but it proved later to be exactly correct.
Most assuring, in all but two visits the company officials said they were satisfied and pleased with the information they received. The first exception was a unfriendly company president who asked no questions and gave no response to the intuitive’s counsel. The second, the president of the large Alaskan fishing concern, utilized the visit to give us a 90-minute lecture on his company’s work, but he too asked no questions. In both cases there was apparently a misunderstanding about the purpose of the visits.
Despite the lack of opportunities to verify the intuitive information given to these clients, no portion of it was discovered incidentally to be downright wrong.
Let it be understood that while we at CAI were pleased with the benefits we were able to bring to our client companies, our goal was not merely to enable them to increase profits. As in CAI’s other programs, we functioned as a non-profit organization in support of research and education through writings, presentations and demonstrations of the value and potential of intuition, to ever wider audiences and especially those in leadership positions in society. Our effort focused not so much on the companies as commercial entities as the individuals within them with whom we interacted. We know that at least some of them benefited personally from the eye-opening performance in which they participated, and which they would probably never have chosen to be involved outside of their work environment. Some held influential positions within the greater Japanese business community, so their fresh impressions of intuitive consulting may have spread further. This involvement with individuals was for CAI a much more satisfying outcome than the financial returns.
Intuitive Consultants’ Perspectives
The expert intuitive [CN] who performed all CAI business consulting in Japan had prior past experience in his own small U.S. business and had already consulted for U.S. companies on his own, apart from CAI. He had never been to Japan before our first consulting trip, and he knew nothing of Japanese language, culture or commercial activities, any more than anyone might pick up fortuitously from Western newspapers or television. One might claim that he was relying strongly on his previous, non-intuitive familiarity with the commercial world as he provided new and specific information, perhaps in ways that were not apparent to anyone else or even to himself, but this interpretation make no sense at all in view of the specialized and often alien content and the high detail provided in his counsel.
Having personally witnessed his performance in all 24 sessions, I can affirm that while his background may have helped him a little, but only very little. At best it may have allowed him to be more at ease in this strange environment and it may have made the information more acceptable to our hosts, since it lent a (false) authority to his counsel. In the end, of course, the validity of the new information must stand on its own merits, since no other factor is at hand for assessing its credibility and applicability.
The CAI intuitive [CN] offered the following comments about his prior intuitive consulting experience:
Occasionally I walk into a board room realizing that, initially, only my contact person will be receptive to what I have to say, and that other board members are skeptical or downright hostile. However, their reactions don’t concern me much. I simply focus on the task before me. … Usually it doesn’t take long for everyone to become curious, especially when they hear information from me that I couldn’t possibly have known beforehand or that confirms their own private thoughts, which for whatever reasons they hadn’t dared to air themselves. … The encounter is not merely mind to mind, but primarily heart to heart. No one leaves the boardroom quite the same.
My intuitive responses to whatever problems are presented to me all spring from the same source. This guarantees that my answers … are not merely local but also global. For this reason I refuse to consult on matters I feel are at odds with the welfare of people and the environment in general.
Another CAI expert intuitive [PP], who has consulted with businesses on her own, describes her work this way:
My work incorporates yet goes beyond normal psychological perspectives, to address the causes and possible solutions to everyday problems. The information comes from the combined superconscious minds of counselor and client, using heightened intuitive perception resulting from empathy and ‘conscious communion.’
In business, the process of direct knowing can shed light on the underlying unconscious agendas interfering with success, help define the most comprehensive, accurate and current vision statement, and assess prospective business partnerships. It can also identify trends in pertinent markets, pinpoint timing, project sales figures and create and double-check strategies. Since 1977 I have been collaborating in this way with many leading professionals, executives, scientists and government officials.
The practice of intuition, like any powerful competence, opens up opportunities for abuse. If we project into the future, when dozens of staff and employees of a company may be developing and using intuitive skills, the risk appears to increase because a single instance of misuse could be very damaging in the commercial environment which relies so heavily upon openness and trust. We may speculate that any of the following misapplications of intuition could occur:
- spying on management for the purpose of blackmail
- obtaining “insider” information about investments, coming price changes or stock sales
- gathering information about other companies to gain an unfair competitive advantage*
- uncovering opportunities for sabotage or embezzlement
- collecting valuable technical information to sell to competing companies
These offenses could be committed either by a member of the company staff or by an employee, for personal gain or to benefit the company itself, within or between companies, and in support of one’s own nation or a foreign government. The possible offenses arise not from intuition itself, of course, but from how the intruder chooses to utilize and apply it. Of course, ethical issues such as these arise with the development of any powerful personal skill, and intuition is only one example.
To be sure, an expert intuitive sits in a position of invisible personal power. If he is able to use his intuitive skill for malicious purposes at all (and there is a question about this—see below), he is in a position to apply it manipulatively without leaving a trace by which he can be directly identified, confronted, apprehended and convicted. If he is careful the offense could go unnoticed until long after the damage is done. While the risk may be very small, the company may need to adopt special safeguards to protect their interests, just as they do today to counter thievery, embezzlement and serious security violations. When faced by one or more highly capable intuitives, such options may not be sufficient, or even possible.
It is tempting to assume that the attitudes and practices required to develop intuitive skill in the first place will prevent such an unethical activity. However, we have at the moment no built-in assurance that intuition is self-protective against harmful application. Entertaining novels, movies and even respectable historical reports have created the impression that intuitively capable but badly intentioned persons can utilize their skills to harm others (legendary advisors to kings, horror stories, etc.) It may turn out that the conjectured offenses from using intuition are simply impossible, but I know of no sufficiently factual and believable evidence that provides such assurance. Until this issue is resolved, precautions must be taken.
Background of Intuition in Business
“Managers skilled in the use of intuition tend to possess particular decision-making skills that most people lack. Specifically, these managers have a sense of vision of what is coming and how to move their organization in response to that vision. They are particularly adept at generating new ideas and in providing ingenious solutions to old problems. They also function best in crises or situations of rapid change.” [E. Zehnder]
At the very least, business consulting has proven to a valuable testing ground for applied intuition.
The commercial world is a lively area of human activity in which its leaders must often operate intuitively to be successful, since there is rarely enough solid data available to them for making clear, fully rational decisions.
The businessman is a conspicuous and respected power figure in his society. He is given the authority to manipulate needed goods and services, including money, the medium by which the value of all material things is measured. He does this by utilizing his will, ambition, intelligence, authority and material resources—and a little intuition. He has much leeway to do his job in his own way with rather few external (legal) constraints. He has respect, credibility and trust in his society. People listen to him when he speaks. His work is also inherently practical, for he is rewarded for making crucial actions actually happen and be effective. When he gives credit to intuition for his successes, he may or may not be right, but we have better grounds for believing him than for believing such claims from most others.
Here are some of the early steps that were taken to identify the role of intuition in business. They were aimed at the time at understanding what this role might be and how it might be enhanced.
- E. Douglas Dean and John Mihalasky at the New Jersey Institute of Technology spent a decade studying the relationship between executive intuition and profitability. Eighty percent of those who did well on a simple intuition test had also doubled company profits within the previous five years.
- Professor Weston Agor at the University of Texas in El Paso formed the 7500-member Global Intuition Network (now headed by Jeffrey Mishlove—see the Appendix), and has written a few books on intuitive decision making. He found in his studies that 2000 managers scored higher on intuition than those ranking lower in the organization; also, 70 top executives acknowledged privately that they were using intuition in their work.
- In 1986 the International Management Institute in Geneva, Switzerland issued its report for the year 2000, which specifically called for increased training in intuition. It convened an international conference on this theme the following year.
- According to John Naisbitt, author of Megatrends, “Another shift I see that really impresses me is a new respectability for intuition in corporate settings. In the 50s, 60s and 70s, everything was done by the numbers. Now people are willing to say, ‘I just feel this is going to work.’ “
- Jagdish Parikh, conductor of a recent international survey, and author of the book, Intuition: The New Frontier of Management, interprets the trend this way: “The advent and availability of electronic data processing to analyze vast amounts of information [etc.] added up to a remarkable edifice of systematic knowledge in the area of business management … a highly analytical approach. … During the last decade, however, there has been a growing perception that there was something incomplete about this modern paradigm. … Experienced practitioners began to suggest that there might be inherent flaws in the tendency to treat the economy like a huge machine, working like clockwork.”
This early work consisted mainly in finding particular qualities presumed to be “intuitive” in businessmen who had been successful, then exploring with ways to develop these mysterious qualities through training in creativity or unstructured thinking. They were a good beginning, probably necessary, but all were using the term “intuition” only as a handy metaphor for the mystery of occasional insight, revelation and creativity, and no more. They failed to appreciate intuition as a basic, non-rational mental faculty that not only unifies the many recognized business examples but offers much more in the depths to which it may go in gaining needed information—as exemplified by CAI’s actual consulting experience as reported above.
Intuition in the Future Business World
The personal and practical benefits to a manager when he improves his intuitive skill are obvious, but we may also ask: what can the development of intuition do if practiced collectively among his staff and employees? Four areas of benefit can parallel his individual efforts :
- Intuition can provide a strong impetus to creativity, both within and outside of the laboratory for generating new ideas, broader perspectives, new business opportunities and novel solutions to specific business problems.
- Intuition can aid individual and group decision making, by clarifying available options, revealing the consequences of various choices, guiding the timing of actions and making the actual critical decisions.
- Intuition can be utilized to obtain specific information through focused inquiries, in order to assist scientific and market studies and to learn more about the social and environmental context in which the company is operating.
- Finally, the collective and interactive development of intuition by executives, staff and employees can have a significant impact on the operation of the companies as a whole, through its positive effects on individual lifestyle, attitudes and career, and the working relationships among all workers. Overall, a company under intuitive direction and operation will tend to be less driven by competition, financial gain and security issues, and more by cooperation, harmony and collective understanding.
In addition, here are three ways in which company leadership—administrators, executives, and responsible officers—may set in motion this shift of direction:
- They may develop, utilize and demonstrate their own intuitive skills. This action may be slow and indirect but is surely the most effective, since it requires personal participation and automatically supports whatever else is done.
- They may bring in expert intuitives from outside the company, as exemplified by the consulting activity described by CAI in these pages, both for the practical benefits just described and as a demonstration of intuition’s longer term potential.
- They may inaugurate internal programs to sensitize staff and employees to the possibilities of intuition for expanding their individual capacities. This may begin with a few promising individuals at first, then later for teams and eventually the entire staff. Incentives and rewards can be set up to encourage individual interest and accomplishment.
Intuitive consulting has been well tested within the commercial environment and found to be not only possible but practical and helpful. The several examples of consultations sketched above demonstrate that an expert intuitive can assist businesses significantly on a broad range of issues, situations and specific topics as sketched above. There is every reason to believe that other types of organizations—trade unions, professional groups, political parties, private clubs, philanthropic institutions, foundations, governmental bodies and even religious organizations—could benefit similarly.
Greater reliance on intuitive resources, both within management and individually by employees, is slowly expanding nowadays throughout the world and will very likely continue to do so over the next several decades. There are no known obstacles to this expansion with the intuitive process itself: it is available and ready to be applied. The only barriers lie in individual and management reluctance to understand the intuitive process, experiment with it and begin to apply it.
- Agor, Weston H., “The Logic of Intuition: How Executives make Important Decisions,” Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1986).
- Agor, Weston, Intuition in Organizations (Newbury, Park, CA: Sage Publishing, 1989). Dean, 1974, Schroeder & Ostrander, 1974.
- Cook, James, “Closing the Psychic Gap,” Forbes, Vol. 133, No. 12, pp. 90-95 (1984).
- Davies, R. J. & Ikeno Osamu, The Japanese Mind (Tuttle Publishing 1991).
- De Mente, Boyé Lafayette, Understanding & Dealing with the New Japanese Way of Doing Business. (Phoenix Books, 2012).
- Feuerstein, Georg, “Intuition in the Boardroom: An Interview with Charles Nunn,” Science of Mind, pp. 34-42+ (August 1993).
- Kautz, William H., “The Future of Japan,” Center for Applied Intuition, Report for Comet Research Institute, Chiba, Japan (1984).
- Licauco, Jaime T., “ESP, Meditation and the Business Executive,” paper presented at the conference “Steps Beyond,” Young Presidents Organization, Cebu City, The Philippines, (26-29 October 1991.
- Mintzberg, Henry, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning (New York: Free Press, 1994)
- Naisbitt, John, Megatrends (Warner Books, 1982).
- Ohmae, Kenichi, The Mind Of The Strategist: The Art of Japanese Business. (McGraw-Hill, 1991).
- Parikh, Jagdish, Intuition: The New Frontier of Management (Oxford: Blackwell’s, 1994).
- Pondy, Louis R., ‘The Union of Rationality and Intuition in Management Action,” in S. Srivasta, ed., The Executive Mind (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984).
- Ray, Michael Rochelle Myers, Creativity in Business (Doubleday, 1986).
- Schultz, Barbara, “Intuition in Business”, in Intuition, No. 7, pp. 14-21 (1995).
- Sullivan, Dierdre, “Portrait of a Prophet,” in Omni, pp. 42-50+ (April 1992).
- Zehnder, Egon, Wall Street Journal, Dec. 28, 1987..
- Schultz, 1995 ↑
- See, for example, Cook, 1984. ↑
- Ohmae 1991, De Mente 2012. ↑
- Davies 2011 ↑
- I learned about these features of Japanese companies through several years of non-CAI technical consultation with three large Japanese firms, Hitachi, Fujitsu, and NTT (the Japanese Telephone Company). I do not assume that all Japanese companies behave similarly, of course. ↑
- Mintzberg 1994 ↑
- Feuerstein, 1993. ↑
- Feuerstein, 1993, Sullivan, 1992. ↑
- Zehnder, 1987. ↑
- Dean, 1974, Schroeder & Ostrander, 1974. ↑
- Agor, 1974, 1986 ↑
- Schultz, 1995 ↑
- Naisbitt, 1994. ↑
- Parikh 1994, pp. 11-12.. ↑
- Licauco, 1991, Agor, 1986. ↑