Intuitive biography can recover intimate knowledge about past persons for which existing records are incomplete, inaccurate or distorted.

THE INTUITIVE HISTORIAN

APPLYING INTUITIVE INQUIRY TO RECOVER LOST HISTORY

“History has been preempted by other forms of storytelling because of its claim to objective truth. The historians are trying to be scientific by standing outside of what is happening and looking at it. … We may find that fiction can be closer to truth than facts are, and that proven facts are merely the fictions we’ve authenticated—our official fiction, as it were.” [Ursula LeGuin]

Introduction

We stated elsewhere that intuitive inquiry is capable of recovering knowledge about the past for which existing records are incomplete, inaccurate or distorted. It’s time now to back up this claim with actual examples.

CAI created intuitive biographies for two individuals who are so ancient that very little is known about them. Five more recent and better known examples of historical figures, all provided by non-CAI intuitives during the last century, are then described briefly. These seven cases cover a broad range of time and place: from 2600 BCE in ancient Egypt, to first-century Palestine, to the 1920s in the jungles of Brazil, and two are deceased authors, who have no earthly place at all, and write “auto”-biographies through willing intuitives. All of these persons are eminent for widely different roles in history: king, physician, avatar, philosopher, explorer, psychologist and painter.

These examples make the point that intuitive recovery of the lost past is not only feasible but the information recovered is valuable and can even be useful, despite the near impossibility of ever verifying it through chance discovery of old documents or by archeological means. After all, not everything we can know and benefit from must first be proven. This is a scientist’s game.

Why History?

Other qualities besides verifiability make these newly recovered biographies valuable, credible and interesting.

Before launching into their lives by intuitive means, it will help to understand a few points about history itself. All five of them can be said to be already known, in a sense, but they are often disregarded or forgotten by historical writers and even historians: what history actually is (and is not); its presumed accuracy, constancy and reliability; how we learn it (in school, really?) and preserve it in writing; how it compares with other sources of information about the past, such as historical fiction; and the role it plays in our evolving societies and especially in our private lives as a common knowledge base we may lean upon as individuals for our growth and identity: who we think we are. We will see that all five of these aspects of history become more relevant when intuitive means of recovery are used.

What actually happened?

First, history is not what happened in the past but a memory or record of what happened. A piece of history is not an occurrence or an event, it is a documentation of it. It is therefore as much a reflection of what the historian chose to write, or what his superiors wanted him to write, as what actually took place. Our present knowledge of much of our past is missing or distorted by this bias. To be sure, this seemingly small slip between the event and the pen is sometimes innocent and unimportant, but at other times it is a deliberate attempt to achieve a political, religious or other purposes. For example, it has had damaging consequences when rulers cited the histories they created as excuses for territorial expansion, revengeful political action, a “justified” war or a genocide.

Their constituencies—that’s the rest of us—have not escaped responsibility for we are continually being misled by our almost invisible ignorance or disregard of certain aspects of history that we rely upon as we respond to our cultural heritage, adopt role models, create self-expectations and manage our personal lives—including passive support to our leaders in their historically based pursuits.

The history of history

A second common presumption is that history is a fixed thing and needs to be written only once, as we describe a mountain, a horse or a person’s death. This is not so at all. History is a human creation and slowly changes as humans change. Concepts and interpretations of the past also change, encouraged by historians who regurgitate past records and rewrite them for readers in their own and later generations—and not always objectively, as just mentioned. Nor is the communication one-way, for readers participate by selecting and adapting what they can believe and use to fit immediate interests and concerns.

Even today we do not have an accurate understanding of much of our formative past, yet we think and behave as if we do. The discrepancies are propagated through generations into daily choices and activities, individually and collectively, and they remain are largely out of sight because they have become part of the historical process itself. The history we perceive teaches us how we should perceive history. Much of our past is not recorded at all. The process is not reliable, and it cannot be fully trusted for the truth about our past.

We can rightly say we are experiencing our backgrounds through a dirty window. Intuitive insight can help us see through it more clearly.

The cost of writing it down

The third significant factor in understanding history is the powerful role played by the written word as the primary means of preservation. Mankind has passed through the primitive stage of no language at all, just individual memory, for retaining what he learns through experience, and it dies with him. Then came speech and spoken communication, including oral history in the form of shared beliefs, myths, rituals and traditions, which allowed experience to be spread communally and not necessarily and repeatedly relearned. With the evolution of writing the retention greatly improved for preserving and distributing individual learning across space and time, seemingly without constraint.

All very well, but while writing was a tremendous facilitator to communication and a huge boon to society, it had a flip side, for it turned out to be limited in what it is able to preserve and convey. Great gaps of human experience, some would say its most important and essential ingredients, had been excluded by the structures of language, and so effectively that even today we are no longer very sensitive to their absence. We know the gaps exist, for who can rightly claim that written descriptions are an adequate substitute for face-to-face, spoken communications? Just a phone call is enough to belie this assumption. You cannot fall in love by reading a book, nor can you grieve with a newspaper or express how you deeply feel in an internet blog. We are very aware that something is missing, and we adapt to its absence, but we can’t quite remember what it is and how our predecessors were once enriched by it in every aspect of life.

The illiterate peoples who relied for millennia upon oral history and direct personal interaction remember. Today we rely heavily upon and take for granted the written products of our modern, mass-oriented and material Western civilization, as if there is no other option. Yes, we have been aided in retaining and sharing many important aspects of our experiences by these means, but at the same time we have lost others. We will do well to recognize and try to recover them.

Science and history

We may rightly ask how it came about that the written word did not live up to its apparent potential. We still have examples of past literature in which these missing qualities are readily apparent: Shakespeare’s plays, for example; older legendary histories such as Homer, the Nordic sagas, the Mahabarata and parallel writings from other cultures; much insightful poetry, religious and mystical writings and volumes of exceptional novels and personal correspondence. We can be profoundly affected when we read them with open minds. But these examples are exceptional: almost all of contemporary written communication does not even approach this standard. How did the loss of this faculty occur?

The rise of science in the sixteenth century is almost certainly the main responsible factor—or at least it was the forerunner of it. We have already seen how science gradually subdued the awareness and practice of intuition, with its heavy emphasis on critical and rational thinking, factual precision and an objective and sense-based criterion of verifiable truth. It also subdued the subjective human sensibilities which had nourished prior generations. Science’s place and power in Western civilization then expanded into the entire world, where it has almost totally supplanted the more subjective elements that preceded it.

Le there be no mistake; this criterion has undoubtedly been a great boon to society in overcoming superstition, irrational beliefs, personal biases and even much of the political manipulation of history cited above. Through its strong aura of accuracy, certainty and permanence, along with the technologies it has made possible, it has greatly improved the quality of life we know today. We trust it greatly, just as our ancestors trusted their myths, legends and religious histories. However, a loss has occurred, so profound and relatively invisible that we can no longer even describe it clearly because our Western languages have been similarly diminished.

Such is science’s influence on history. We cannot trust it because its perspective is based almost entirely on the physical, material world, as perceived through the five physical senses, as described earlier. Yes, it recognizes the existence of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, other subjective senses and the mind-based human activities we live with every day, but it has no place for them in its material model of reality and its methods for exploring this reality. It is therefore limited in the kind of human history it can encompass. Even the abundant experiential and empirical data on human experience that falls outside of sensory observation and rational explanation are not taken into full account. If we are to interpret and translate factual past events into our ever growing base of knowledge and understanding about the world we live in, we must go beyond what our science can offer.

Fiction can be closer to truth than facts are.

Again, it is difficult to appreciate the extent of this loss because it has limited our current way of thinking about ourselves, our so called worldview, so we cannot readily recognize what we are missing. Intuition can help us bridge this chasm by helping us tune into this lost capacity, thereby reminding us of it through its capacity to recover these forgotten but valuable qualities that are so hard to write about. It can help us understand better ourselves and our world.

History as fiction, fiction as history

“History, as you think of it, represents but one thin line of probabilities in which you are presently immersed. … There are many other equally valid, equally real evolutionary developments that have occurred and are occurring and will occur, all within other probable systems of physical reality.” [Jane Roberts/Seth]

To make a fourth point, we recognize that these gaps are not so pronounced in today’s civilized world as they were even a century ago. Our democracies have taught us to compensate with informed discrimination and criticism, and our modern means of communication tend to smooth out, compensate and cover them up. We learn our history nowadays mainly through the genre of historical fiction and its visual counterpart of entertaining films, documentaries and dramas. While inaccuracies and speculations still occur in these reconstructions, and perhaps more so, we find we can largely overlook them in favor of familiar and lifelike re-creations, attractive fill-in characters and manufactured scenes in which we can imagine ourselves. What a contrast to the sterile facts we were fed in school about kings, dates, battles and ever-shifting borders!

There can be no doubt that history, in whatever form, has played a crucial and necessary part in the development of modern human civilization. Even the crudest and most inaccurate records of the past have served mankind in their own way over past centuries and millennia. At the very least they have helped man avoid the repetition of past mistakes, and to discover himself through his culture and community. As historical information is gradually integrated and organized into social customs, religions, sciences and educable bodies of knowledge, it also accelerates and shapes man’s constructive and creative thought into fresh forms for enhancement and growth. History is truly the major component of social memory, whether it be oral, written or simply incorporated into communal behavior.

These newly enlivened presentations of our past are now widespread, more available and more popular with every passing year, thanks to the abundant capabilities of the internet and related technology. They can now be experienced with vivid color, dynamic action, widescreen vistas and recognizable human beings like ourselves who undergo the same kinds of pleasures and pains as we do. Despite the exaggerations and artificiality they help keep us honest and abreast of our heritage by bringing us into close contact with our predecessors, and therefore with the human richness from which we have been separated. It is called “fiction,” and rightly so, but it turns out to be subjectively closer to the life we actually live than what we call “history.”

As intuitive explorers we may participate in these historical portrayals on the side of greater accuracy and relevance to evolving human life, not just socially but as growing individuals within our societies. We are moving today far beyond the speculations of the prior historians who recorded the original past events, and even modern scholars of history who are committed to a factual, intellectual and scientific standard of correctness. Intuitive history can do even better. Herein lies its main prospect for the future.

Responding to Intuitive History

You are invited now to participate in a free and exploratory experiment in which totally new knowledge may enter your mind, unhampered by past errors, scientific criteria and inherited expectations. It matters little whether the intuitively offered events can be validated as “true,” from a traditional objective perspective. Never mind looking for evidence for the intuitives’ statements, questioning their validity and drawing implications from them. This kind of brainwork can come later if needed. Try to trust your inner mind, which has the capacity to discern the truth, as you immerse yourself intuitively into the neglected possibilities the expert intuitives have generated for you.

Just consider: this is what your early predecessors had to do when they read or listened to their long treasured creation stories, legends, myths, tales of archetypal gods and the conquests of superheroes, for these were their main carriers of the deeper truths that cannot be readily expressed in literal words. The best of classical fiction also helped, as already mentioned. Your ancestors had to sort out the valid fragments from the unreliable news which reached their ears, so they could react wisely. They had to trust their intuitive capacities, which you too possess and are free to employ.

Let’s take a look now at some specific examples of intuitively recovered biography.

The Ancient Physician Imhotep[1]

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In CAI’s first attempt at retrieving lost history, six CAI expert intuitives[2] and a few candidates contributed to a consensual inquiry on the individual Imhotep who lived in Third Dynasty Egypt, about 2600 BCE. Very little is known about him; he was chosen just for this reason. The questions posed to the intuitives were prepared carefully in advance as usual, and the inquiry sessions were conducted individually in the late 1970s and early 1980s. What follows is a condensed version of the resulting consensus, which agreed well among the expert intuitives on almost all points. (The full record would require half a book!) Most of the redundancy in the consensus is omitted here; just a few redundant excerpts are included at the following summary to illustrate how the different intuitives communicated almost identical information. More details from the consensus are included in this first biography than in those which follow.

I am well aware that few readers are much interested in such an unknown and ancient person, but but when have you had the chance to learn about the personal life of a fellow human who lived 4600 years ago? Anyway, you are invited to regard this dip into the pastbut as an exemplary experiment in intuitive recovery. You may watch the figure of Imhotep come into recognizable focus, and appreciate, I hope, how intuitive inquiry is able to unfold a lost human life, even in the absence of a conventional historic basis.

We review first the few known facts about Imhotep, then the various legends about him that arose over the two millennia after he lived. The consensual findings follow, compared briefly with relevant historical facts as they are available. A few implications are then drawn about intuitive historical recovery in general.

Who was Imhhotep?

Reliable historical records on Imhotep are indeed sparse. The long and superstitious legend has almost no identifiable historical basis that can be said to be certain. (Budge, 1904, Breasted, 1933, p. 112ff, Gardiner, 1962, pp. 72-73; Erman, 1971)

A short inscription on the pedestal of a statue of Pharaoh Djoser (King Zoser), our subject’s contemporary, praises Imhotep as “chancellor of the king, high priest, chief sculptor, and administrator of the Great Mansion.” Other records cite him as “vizier, overseer of public works, chief ritualist and scribe of God’s book.” He is credited with being the creator of the Step Pyramid near Sakkara and originator of building with hewn stone. (No mention of medicine at this early date.) He was obviously highly honored in the eyes of his king and other superiors, and such titles must have some basis, but they were typical for conferring honor posthumously in that age, even attributing divine status. They can be seen only as gross exaggerations and cannot be literally valid. (Hurry 1928, Budge 1904, Gardiner 1961, Foucart 1903) They do not even agree one another.

Imhotep’s family is unknown except for his father Ka-nefer, who is said to have been an accomplished architect—perhaps the origin of his alleged role in the Step Pyramid.

Temples of healing began to be erected to Imhotep about 200 years later when he began to be worshipped as a demigod. Five centuries still later there are references to even greater accomplishments: sage, astronomer, writer and (finally) a physician. A dozen centuries further on the Greeks identified him with Asklepios, their god of healing and “son of Apollo.” From the Ptolemaic period (300-30 BCE) he was fully deified as a god of medicine and healing, and this time a “son of Ptah.” (Sethe 1902, Shebata 2004) Several dozen statuettes and mural paintings of him, most dating from the 22nd dynasty (943-720 BCE), have shown up throughout Egypt. (Anon 1964), obviously artistic depictions since they do not agree on his physical features.

These various honors and depictions say nothing at all about Imhotep as a person. Whatever he was when he lived, he was borrowed and reconstructed as an idol in the religions and legends of Middle East cultures for two subsequent millennia. (This is actually not so different from the man Jesus, whom we take up elsewhere). The later legends are not only incredible but they appear to be talking about someone else, a fabricated creation rather than a real person. We are left with no information at all about Imhotep’s personality and character, his childhood, physical appearance, education, young years, wife and family, interests, health, activities, accomplishments and death—all aspects we assume today to be essential in a biography.

These missing elements were the basis for the questions asked in this intuitive inquiry—just what any author would ask when collecting material for a biography.

Intuitive Description of Imhotep

While the consensus confirms and modifies some of Imhotep’s acclaimed accomplishments, it directly contradicts others and adds some new ones.

Overall, it depicts him as a gifted and very active “Renaissance man” of his day. Most striking is the picture presented of his character, beliefs, values, strivings, struggles and relationships with his contemporaries. These personal facets are new and not even mentioned in archeological and historical sources, and they probably never will be.

Character. The consensus agreed that as a youth Imhotep manifested three outstanding qualities that were to set the pattern for his entire life: his compassion, his determination and his curiosity:

He was always considering his fellow beings. He was always considering how he could help them, how he could administer and minister to them. [AA*[3]]

He listened a lot and was a deep thinker. Once he had risen to a cause there was no yielding or bending—sometimes to the point of stubbornness. [LH]

Basically, he was a very optimistic individual. When there was a problem for which everybody said, “This is impossible,” then he knew there was a possibility. He used people as his point of calibration. When there was a consensus that something could not be done, then he knew it could be done. And so he left himself open to the possibility for an expansion, for a development. … He knew exactly what he wanted. He had much going for him on the intuitive side. … We find also that this individual knew how to ask questions. He did not beat around the bush when there were answers that he needed. [AA]

He had a fantastic mind, full of ideas and enlightenment. [AM]

These qualities found for their development a keen mind, a prodigious memory, a strong intuition and much determination: He is one of these people who has assimilated everything he ever inquired about, learned and saw. He has a tremendous memory, and constantly dwelled on all aspects of life that he has stored away. His mind is very keen, sharp and not limited to the area that he is most interested in. [GB]

Knowledge was easily obtained by Imhotep. His mind was quick and precise, his memory was profound and his execution of knowledge was effective as well as creative. He could easily have been a scholar. [BR]

His outstanding nature or quality is his curiosity, his inquiring. I don’t think he ever stopped asking questions. With that quality of not accepting everything he is taught, he wants to find things out for himself, to investigate and see what is true. He has so many things that he wants to do, to work on, to investigate. He’s bubbling with it, bursting with energy—all potential ideas that he wants to do. [GB]

Isolated. At the same time, these strengths led him into an independent and lonely life, largely separated from his fellow man, though he remained humble while unattached:

He has a very ambitious schedule, but he did not seek too much for himself. He did not seek high position, high power. But when he received high power, when he received authority, he used it to the fullest advantage—for himself, as well as to promote the good will of whomever now he served, or whomever had his services. He was not a seeker, per se, for selfish reasons. He was a seeker of truth. … But on this same point, he was a very gentle individual. [AA]

He spends lots of time by himself. [AM]

Lonely. Though surrounded by people and constantly involved with people, Imhotep was most lonely:

His communication with the Gods restricted in part his communication with man. Much he could not relate and was required to keep it within himself. This led to caution, which led to a great silence and loneliness. [BR]

He didn’t like crowds. He liked to remove himself from things to gain a better perspective. He lived ninety percent of his life in his own mind; the other ten percent was family life and other matters. [LH]

Family life. A rewarding relationship with a woman was apparently not his destiny:

His family life wasn’t all that good. He could have been better at that. He knew also that he had a weakness when it came to other women, other than his wife. [AA]

I don’t find a woman that is close to him that he cares about. I’m going back briefly to see if there was one he might have lost or whatever, but it’s almost as if he had no time. [GB]

(Did he have a wife and children?) Yes, but they are way out of the picture, except for one son that he hoped to pass things on to. [LH]

Temperament. He also had a driving impatience, which sometimes burst forth in anger:

At times, when he became impatient—and he did become impatient, especially when his experiments failed or when people would die or when that which he had planned did not work out —so did he begin to blame himself for mistakes or failures. … Sometimes he was a quiet and silent and innocent as a lamb, and at other times he was a roaring lion. [AA]

He had lots of control over things, though not himself, for he had a temper, and experienced frustration and roughness at times. [AM]

This gentle man had also a temper that was profound, caused largely by pain suffered most of his life. [BR]

Another weakness in his character showed up later in his life as he received awards and recognition:

He had all that he needed, and he did not want very much. Except when it was given to him— that is, positions, authority, responsibilities—then he held onto it for dear life. Though he knew that it was through his own efforts that he had achieved, he also felt that now these rewards belonged to him and no one was going to take them away from him. And so it was like a dual personality. [AA]

He was cautious at times, especially when he knew that in a few weeks hence he would be receiving a great reward or a promotion or an assignment. He was very cautious; but when he attained to that position, he was almost like a different personality. People became afraid of him for a while. But then everything calmed down, and after the newness of the position or assignment had worn off, then he returned to his own self again. This happened a number of times. [AM]

Physical appearance and health. The intuitives agreed that Imhotep was tall, slender and fair-skinned in comparison with his contemporaries. His build was square and stocky, somewhat hunched. He looked to be non-Egyptian. He had a high, protruding forehead (some said it was bald), large hands and large, beautiful eyes. An accident to his leg or hip in his youth (one said at age nine) left him with a limp and caused him pain throughout his life. In other respects he was fairly healthy until old age.

Education. In his younger years his father educated him in both medicine and statesmanship, the latter as a “backup” trade. Early on, however, he showed ability not only in these two fields but in music, mathematics, architecture and astronomy (i.e., astrology) as well. He eventually became very capable at understanding people, especially in diplomacy and what we today call psychology:

He had a very penetrating personality. And though his eyes he could see right through people, he withheld information from people that he knew about them, for fear that they would not be able to take it. In short, he could even “psychoanalyze” people quite quickly. He was able to work as a mediator, as a fact finder, even. [AA]

He could have been a diplomat; he could have been a statesman; he could have even been a premier, an ambassador; but instead he chose to go into the field of being a physician, the field of medicine. [AA]

He also taught himself several languages.

Religious orientation. Imhotep was described as an irreligious but spiritual person:

I don’t see him so much as a religious man, following the religion of the times…. He couldn’t be bothered by what was prescribed: the prayers, the concepts, and so on. … He found ways to leave the priesthood alone, so to speak. They did make demands on him, but he didn’t have too much to do with them. … The priests always wanted drugs, herbs from him, potions for work with the neophytes for the psychic out-of-body state to bring them information. He had no patience for any of that. He preferred to deal with the facts. The body was mystery enough for him. [GB]

He had a peculiar relationship with his God, namely, that God was his guide. He felt— and he said so to his close friends—that he could talk to God. These people thought that he had gone just a little too far, but they kept it quiet. But he was quite an outspoken individual in having a relationship to God. The creative force was an idea which he also had come upon, which proved to be right. [AA]

Imhotep was a man of healing and a very spiritual man. He was a man very much in favor of the Gods of that time. [BR]

Man was a wondrous creation to him. He had an understanding of many of the other forces that could affect him, such as the sun and moon and the stars. However, he was not totally aware of the inner workings of man, though he did realize that he was more than just a happenstance being on the planet. He had the awareness that there was an almighty force that directed each being on earth. There was a spiritual understanding, yet it was not such that he tried to change man’s thinking about. [LH]

He had a far greater grasp of the universe, the healing effects and the uniformity and expansion of the universe, than anybody else at his time. He did not write much of that down, but he thought it, he spoke it to his close friends. [AA].

Imhotep as physician. Imhotep’s greatest accomplishments by far lay in medicine, we are told: the use of herbs and potions, anatomy, the nervous system and the circulatory system:

Imhotep's greatest accomplishments by far lay in medicine. He knew that illnesses are not with the physical body but that the source is with the mind.

(What specific contributions did he make to medicine?) In this case, the anatomy, pertaining now to the bone structure. He specifically came out with the anatomy which is written in one of your classical books. And he also began to understand the nervous system. … He knew also another major contribution, which people are just beginning to touch upon in your present lifetime, that illnesses are not with the physical body, but that the source is with the mind. He knew the connection [distinction?] between psychosomatic illnesses and those which were truly a physical defect. He knew the differences. And when people complained, he could quickly go to the source. [AA]

Perhaps his greatest knowledge was in curing fevers, which overtook men and ravaged the body and mind, causing sweats and then dehydration. His knowledge of herbs was comparable to your best chemists today. His knowledge of the organs enabled him to deduce much in regard to troubled areas of the body. He was aware that water caused fever, but not how. His contributions to medicine were extensive, yet were not recognized or acclaimed to a great extent. His ability as a healer was, however, acclaimed. [BR]

His special interest and study seem to be centered around the brain and the spine, the central nervous system. I think he feels that everything stems from that, almost as if all other systems are dependent upon the spine, brain and nerves. … He is particularly fascinated with paralyses, all injuries resulting from the spine, even mental derangements. [GB]

Blood flow and internal organs. … He knew of the meridians, though not the pressure points. He had a faint knowledge of the nervous system. He was familiar with the use of herbs, a skill he learned from others. He did some direct healing. [LH]

He performed surgery, but only a little and under duress.

Imhotep also founded an unusual school for male medical students, passing on to them much of what he had learned. He wasn’t always a good teacher, however. He preferred students as bright as eager as he had been and was impatient with those less motivated or less intelligent.

Architecture. The intuitive team did not support the historical picture of Imhotep as a pyramid builder. While he was fascinated with pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid of Giza, it was only their use for healing that interested him. He participated in the design of the Step Pyramid for this purpose, and he was given credit for it, but he was not its architect or chief engineer as the legend suggests:

The Great Pyramid was built by the time he lived there … Yet, the most significant work that he did as far as building pyramids was so it could be used in the area of healing, in the area of instructions, and also as an observatory for looking at the stars and so forth. [AA]

He and a friend who was a mathematician discussed and worked between themselves, confirming the energy that could be there [in the pyramids], the potential. The friend worked from the precise mathematical point of view. He [Imhotep] was very keen on what the friend told him the energy could do. They ran experiments together, building them as models. … What they are doing is planning the perfect pyramid, like a great dream, a vision—the mathematician through preciseness and him more through intuition—for that was one of the outstanding features of this physician. [GB]

He had knowledge of them [the pyramids] and of the engineering and math, but this was not his profession. … He was not there to build the pyramids. [BR]

Death and entombment. We did not explore this topic deeply or thoroughly, so there was no consensus, but the intuitives who addressed it agreed that Imhotep was buried in a fairly simple wooden box under a pyramid-like structure, now completely covered by sand. One source gave his manner of death: cancer in the abdomen at 73. There was disagreement regarding the entombment itself. Two intuitives mentioned that the public burial was a mock one, while his friends secretly put his boxed body in another tomb to protect it from thieves.

(Anything buried with the body?) There is a case, and his arm has gold on it. There is blue lapilus [lapis?]. There is a long shape inside the case, something like you’d keep papers in. It is cylindrical with an alligator-skin-like pattern upon it. There are papers inside that refer to guiding people in healing ways, also to potions and energies. [AM]

They placed in the coffin several scrolls about medicine, about architecture, about diplomacy, so he could have them in his next life, in his next journey. [AA]

There’s some important medical information with this man, Imhotep. That’s what’s to be discovered, more than his body. It would be useful and practical now. [SF]

Most of the intuitives agreed that the body is still in identifiable condition; only a part has decomposed. Three said that his tomb lies northwest of the town where he lived (Sakkara), at a distance from 5 to 15 miles, in what is now dune-like desert, but there are no obvious landmarks nearby. The “casket” is 10-20 feet below present ground level.[4]

We might have questioned further to pinpoint the location of the tomb with enough precision to allow an exploration, but it would have been premature to do so until we had the means and collective intention to actually carry out such a search. One intuitive had this to say about such an expedition:

It could be a very rewarding project but there will not be any big treasures in there, such as were found in other tombs, you understand. It will make an impact upon the medical community, inasmuch as they will now begin to realize there is more to the field of medicine than has originally been thought. Also, you will begin to realize that this man was a highly spiritual person, and he gained his strength from his encounter, his fellowship and guidance with his God, you see. … There will be some difficulties in the unearthing of this crypt, for you will find remnants of waterways below the crypt itself. So, you need to show a little caution. [AA]

Summary and interpretation

This intuitive biography of Imhotep presents a credible story in its own right: fairly detailed, plausible overall, self-consistent and consistent with human nature as commonly understood. (One cannot make this claim for most of the “channeled” history published in recent years.) The intuitive picture supplements and fleshes out in a reasonable way the small but acceptable historical picture of Imhotep, modifying it only on a few points—his limited role in architecture and pyramid construction, for example. It contradicts the legendary history on many points, and this is to be expected.

Most interesting, this intuitive account goes well beyond all existing history in describing Imhotep as a human being and the various facets of his personal life, none of which is accessible from archeological, historical and other recorded records.

Akhnaten, Heretic Pharaoh

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We now move forward thirteen centuries to another Egyptian individual, the 18th-Dynasty Pharaoh (King) Amenhotep IV, also named Akhnaten.

CAI conducted a more extensive experiment in intuitive biography on this man, nearly thirty sessions with fifteen intuitives, six of them expert.[5] They generated a voluminous, informative and fairly detailed description of Akhnaten’s personal life, activities and culture. Just as with Imhotep the consensus was very good among the six. It was consistent with the known and trustworthy historical facts about him, which are more abundant and reliable than for Imhotep, even though much of the physical record about him was deliberately destroyed after his death. The consensus deviated from history only on certain portions already controversial. Like Imhotep, it added rich personal and cultural details about him and his contemporaries that are not part of Egyptian history.

According to well documented accounts Akhnaten ruled Egypt from 1379-1362 BCE. He is most renown as the “heretic” pharaoh because he defied the firmly established priesthood (church and state were one in those days) and set up his own new and more liberal state religion. He also introduced a number of progressive changes into his society in art, literature and court customs. He moved the capital from Thebes to a remote site down the Nile, near the village El Amarna, and named it Akhetaten after his new God Aten. (Aldred 1988, Giles 1972, Redford 1984, Aldred 1984, Silverberg, 1964.)

More history is available on Akhnaten’s family members than about this peculiar ruler himself[6]: his wife Nefertiti, whose classic beauty graced a famous bust found intact in the sands of El Amarna (Aldred 1973); his father, Amenhotep III, for his many military conquests, consolidation of the empire and dozens of new buildings and statues of himself; his mother Tiye (Anon1), whose stern features suggest more determination and control then compassion; and the boy Tutankhamon (“King Tut”), his grandson, whose famous tomb was discovered largely intact in 1924. (Cone, 1976, Carter & Mace, 1930)

Statues record Akhnaten as shaped strangely in body, apparently without shame since he must have approved them, and mentally a bit unstable, more of a visionary than a practical leader. Indeed, his efforts to actualize his reforms were not very effective. His peaceful diplomacy did not work well, for the extensive Egyptian empire began to fall apart under his leadership. His inheritors competed for authority after his death and the 18th dynasty ended a few decades later. His religious revival did not endure either. The old priesthood regained control only 17 years after he assumed the throne, deposed their strange king, moved the capital back to Thebes and destroyed most of the material evidence of his reign. He fell into obscurity for most of subsequent history until discoveries in the 19th century began to reveal the details of his rule.

Akhnaten’s historical significance still remains controversial. His life has been the subject of many scholarly books and popular novels. The latter fill out liberally the factual record of his life with modern interpretations and much imagination, all very entertaining but further confusing the already incomplete historical picture.

We have in Akhnaten another unusual individual at the edge of history, and a suitable candidate for an experiment in intuitive inquiry. Sufficient archeological evidence and documents now exist to allow his intuitive biography to be partially verified. We are again most interested in the intuitive insights on his personality, beliefs and human qualities that have arisen from this unusual reconstruction.

Intuitive view of Akhnaten

This is unfortunately not the place to report in full detail the contents of this voluminous intuitive collection. Even the compressed consensus is too extensive to be presented and appreciated in this limited space. It could fill an entire book. Suffice it to summarize the most novel and outstanding features on his life and try to draw a few additional conclusions on intuitive biography in general.

Childhood and education. The intuitives report that his childhood was lonely and isolated, not only because his family overprotected him as a royal heir but also by his very nature: he was withdrawn and a born loner. He said (later) that he came to Earth as a stranger with a mission but did not otherwise belong here. His health was poor from childhood, as if he were fighting his own existence.

Akhnaten had several wise teachers whom he respected and loved, but the greatest influence was his ambitious mother Tiye, who seeded (or awakened) in him many of the progressive ideas he was to implement later as a ruler. As he matured he expressed broad interests, embracing art, education and philosophy, what we would call science today. He also sought to improve the practical professions (e.g., medicine) which at that time were disorganized and without accepted standards of competence and accountability.

Body and personality. The consensus says he was independent, moody and unpredictable as an adult, and somewhat unstable mentally (but who is to say what is unstable for such an unusual person). His emotional life was wild, but he was not the crazy religious zealot as some of his biographers have painted him.

Destiny. Akhnaten’s personal inner world was very real to him, almost more real than his daily one. His spiritual understanding ran deep even if crudely expressed. He recognized in early adulthood his destiny as a unique social transformer, but he had great difficulty executing this role. He made many mistakes before he was deposed. He could never have done anything without the kingly authority he inherited.

Religion. History credits him with introducing a new monotheistic religion to his country, but the intuitives say it was not new, for the concept was already well known and practiced. He simply brought it forward, gave it a new religious form, set up the sun as its symbol, devised more liberal doctrines and imposed them by his office over his country’s existing theocracy. Nor did he inaugurate a “new religion” in the modern sense; he merely shifted the emphasis and values of the existing one—and dramatically so—as an outer statement of his inner convictions. Perhaps most unusual, he introduced various open, family related and honest human qualities in the outer manifestation of his religion. They show up in the art of his period, and we may interpret them now as the outer expression of his inner understanding of man’s relation to his Creator and God, a feature that shows up occasionally in all major religions.

The intuitive consensus on Akhnaten significantly expands the limited historical picture of him as painted by historians and Egyptologists.

Wife and children. Akhnaten had several marriages and sired many children, including children of his own children (a common practice in those days, even for royalty), and he cared deeply for some of them. He and his wife Nefertiti loved one another but became somewhat estranged later (as suspected by historians) though she continued to support his social and religious reforms up to his and her deaths.

Legacy. Akhnaten left a significant, albeit less tangible, legacy through his attempts to question, realign and restructure the rigid and traditional Egyptian society. Some modern scholars claim that the seeds he planted in his relatively short reign gradually and subtly shifted philosophical thinking in the Middle East and set it on a new course. The intuitives confirm both his mission and the long-term effects of his life, despite its practical failures.

Summary

The intuitive consensus on the life of Akhnaten significantly expands the limited historical picture of him as painted by historians and Egyptologists, and it provides a wealth of relevant personal detail to explain how he was able to do what he did, and how and why it failed as a practical and political undertaking.

While Akhnaten’s strong spiritual drive undoubtedly provided the motivation for his reforms, it was also a living demonstration to his society, and possibly the entire Middle East, of an alternative to the existing, conservative and restrictive religious foundation of his society. Even though he imposed it authoritatively, it would have sent to his people a message of hope, greater personal freedom, potential social change and respect for a more human kind of God than Amon, Ptah and the others. This aspect has been mentioned but never became a serious consideration in Egyptology. We may appreciate it today as a similar wave of new thinking is passing through the world. Indeed, the contemporary interest in Akhnaten which has emerged in the several recent novels (Drury, 1976, Waltari, 1949 and others), museum exhibits and even a play Christie 1937) and an opera (Glass 1984), confirms the parallel association.

CAI’s original expectations in carrying out this and the previous study in intuitive history were fulfilled for the most part, since the two biographies show clearly that the intuitive recovery of history is a viable supplement to scholarly research and interpretation of the meager fragments of historical data. Even without archeological verification they are very credible, a value that is strengthened by the other bodies of intuitive information which have been successfully verified.

An obstacle arose when deciding what to do with the new intuitive biographies after collecting, screening and corroborating them. We located a few Egyptologists who professed an interest in Imhotep or Akhnaten but none was interested in the new information, even to read it. The reports you have just read may be as far as these experimental biographies will reach.

Other Intuitive Biographies

Objective truth, if it exists at all, cannot be reached with words. History is an art, not a science.” [Ursula LeGuin]

Geraldine Cummins

CAI has not been alone in regenerating history intuitively.

This talented Irish expert intuitive wrote several intuitive biographies, two about Jesus, (Cummins 1937, 1950) (discussed in another page of this site), [link to Unver’d-JESUS] and a related series entitled The Scripts of Cleophas (Cummins 1928) which purport to describe the daily activities of Paul and other first-century evangelists, parallel to Luke’s Book of Acts and some of Paul’s letters in the New Testament. She also generated two more biographies allegedly written by philosopher, classicist and psychic researcher Frederick W. H. Myers after he died in 1901. He had promised while alive that he would return and describe the after-death state, and he apparently did just that in The Road to Immortality and Beyond Human Personality. (Cummins 1932, 1955) She wrote all of these books and others automatically, from a light trance at high speed and without lifting her hand from the paper, while a sitter turned the pages for her. She claimed conscious ignorance of their content before receiving them. She also wrote books and plays normally, without trance, and during World War II worked for a while with the British Secret Service.

One of her most interesting accounts concerns an well known explorer, British Artillery Colonel Percy Fawcett, who vanished during his eighth expedition (1925) into the Mato Grosso, the dense and dangerous Brazilian jungle. Several adventurers responded to the urge to travel there and try to find him. Those not killed by wild tribesman brought back interesting but inconsistent fragments of information about his activities and whereabouts but no clear evidence whether he was still alive or what had happened to him.

Cummins’ book, The Fate of Colonel Fawcett, (1955) offers a first-person, detailed and fascinating explanation of his final days. Her longtime sitter, Ms. E. B. Gibbes turned the pages of her writing as she filled them. She undertook the inquiry with much personal reluctance, but was finally persuaded by her sitter. Fawcett’s story, consistent with the best of the searchers’ reports in factual details, presents an unusual but credible account of his struggles to survive in the inhospitable jungle. He explains how he sought to fulfill his dream of finding evidence of an ancient, even Atlantean, presence in the area, guided by clues he received from local Indian tribes with which he became friendly. He says he was not a gold hungry adventurer, as popularly perceived, but rather a serious seeker of understanding of human history and the mysteries of his own mind.

He goes on to describe the tribe in which he found a home. It welcomed and protected him but the Chief forbid his departure under threat of death, for fear that he would bring in more white men and his tribe would be destroyed. He aided his archeological efforts with local and guided explorations. Solitary escape was impossible. His two companions, one his son, sought independently to reach a hidden “Golden City” but were mercy killed to protect them from capture by nearby cannibals—a very slow death. After many difficulties he located the City later for himself but found most of it buried by a large landslide. His return almost killed him, but the natives’ special skills restored his health and also allowed his yearnings for self-knowledge to be fulfilled in an unusual manner during the few months before he died of jungle fevers and infections.

The Indian Chief spread conflicting rumors about him to divert those who might seek him. These were quite effective but did not prevent British fiction writers from reshaping the collection of contradictory reports into novels and a movie on the Fawcett mystery. None cite his autobiography as conveyed by Cummins.

Ms. Gibbes’ conducted afterwards a careful analysis of the accumulation of reports about Fawcett, including a book by his other son Brian. This study enabled her to corroborate much of his autobiography against these sources. The result is included at the end of Cummins’ book. Overall, the book makes fascinating and unusual reading as a real-life example of intuitive biography.

More on Jesus

Cummins aforementioned account of the life and teachings of Jesus was extended in two CAI books, A New Jesus, based on four intuitive inquiry sessions with CAI expert intuitive Kevin Ryerson [KR], and further in The Story of Jesus, an anthology of writings by twenty intuitives from the last century, collected and published by this author. Both are currently being drawn upon and extended with additional material into The Pre-Christian Jesus, an intuitive recovery of that portion of Jesus’ life and teachings which were lost when the early Christian Church adopted him as its idol during the years after his death. It reshaped his ministry and his message to its liking and destroyed most of the original records. This new book is directed toward twenty-first century Christians who are seeking greater meaning in their lives though a return to the original and lost teachings of the man they so higher honor.

Jane Roberts

The well known intuitive Jane Roberts is responsible for some thirty books on advanced psychology, poetry and fiction, most of them through dictation from Seth, her trance communicant. The latter cover a wide range of unusually eloquent descriptions on how the unconscious mind functions and manifests itself in the waking consciousness with which everyone is familiar. Her ability to enter these deep mental realms at will, explore their contents and report back on them, is truly unique.[7]

Two of her books present intuitive autobiographies, one of painter Paul Cezanne (Roberts 1977b) and the other of American philosopher William James. (Roberts 1978) They describe not only the richly enhanced and active after-death state—which we may readily imagine for ourselves when our turn comes—but they also offer much broadened pictures of these particular individuals as they were known to their public—and to themselves—when alive. We are given the opportunity to peer into their inner minds, and enjoy with them the expansion of the understanding of life they sought when alive, in their respective careers, into the greater understanding they achieved after they died. Both display exceptional sensitivity and intellectual content, not as conventional event-based autobiographies but as examples of the expansion of awareness they say is in store for everyone when our physical, cultural and social shells can be set aside. We are able to see how these two eminent persons regarded their lives from this much broader perspective.

Jane’s process of reception was different for the two books. “With Cezanne I felt rather like a secretary, while James and I had a direct personal working relationship. I suspect that Cezanne wasn’t aware of my reality to any strong degree, only of his own.” With James, “I’m not in a trance as the word is currently understood. It’s not a communication from William James in the conventionally understood manner of mediums and spirits, but a situation in which one consciousness takes the stance of another and views reality from that standpoint. … A new creative synthesis is formed. .. The flow of words came in rapidly and smoothly. … I could tell that somebody—James?—was definitely beginning something he meant to finish. … The manuscript came definitely as a book with its own title and structure. … There are places in the manuscript where James describes his part in our rather bizarre arrangement.” (Roberts 1978)

Jane’s more psychological books describe her unusual process in detail, and explain how this kind of intuitive information access actually takes place continually but unconsciously in all human minds. (Roberts 1972, 1974)

These two “auto”-biographies” convincingly demonstrate the untapped possibilities of intuitive inquiry from this deeper level. We should be inspired and ready now to generate similar biographical accounts from more historical individuals who have had an impact still being felt today.

Roberts’ extensive collection of writings are now archived in the Yale University Library.

Summary

“A large part of our time is spent remembering the past. Only we don’t realize that what we are remembering is not reality but rather images fabricated by our internal dialogue concerning what happened to us. We don’t remember facts, but interpretations of facts. We are unaware of our real past because we are too involved in repeating to ourselves a mythical history that our ego has developed to justify its existence.” [Carlos Castaneda]

History is the socialized aspect of human memory, our precious faculty for bringing the experiences of the past into the present. Like memory, it can greatly enrich our lives and free us from the need to relearn what we have already learned and forgotten. But history is a fallible service, even less reliable than human memory, because most of it comes to us indirectly from others whom we cannot fully trust. We can never be sure even today about what actually happened in the past. History has been greatly misused as a social tool, often heavily impacting civilization and compromising how individuals think about themselves and their world. We must learn to work with history’s limitations in capacity, range, accuracy and freedom of use.

What we know as history is an imperfect substitute for the events and experiences it purports to convey. It is very incomplete, for much was never recorded. It is compressed into written languages not made to hold the subjective subtleties of human experience. It continually changes over time and place, and it can easily be confused with fiction and imagination.

These deficiencies can be partially transcended with the help of intuitive insight and inquiry. The seven biographies presented here offer concrete examples of how intuitive methods can bring forward important portions of the past in an informative, inspiring and credible fashion. It can provide levels of detail, subjective sensitivity, personal perceptions and a depth of relationships which can only be approximated in historical reports. Even though the new intuitive information is not fiction, it may serve its readers in a manner similar to the best historical fiction. It may turn out to be regarded later as more accurate than ordinary history, because it conforms better to popular understanding of the nature of human life, and since its credibility has been increased by the already proven accuracy of intuitive information in other fields. Most of ordinary history cannot offer this much.

Intuition has the capacity to correct and fill in these distorted aspects of our common heritage, thereby providing a fresher, clearer and more realistic picture. We may therefore arrive at a history that can stand above conventional history as an enriching and potentially useful source of knowledge about ourselves.

The examples of individual lives described here reveal what it is possible through intuitive history, even in the absence of validation. Other historic individuals could be similarly explored intuitively, and serve at least as a basis for historical novels. Some could motivate special projects to check out intuitive points through archeological research, searches of the thousands of old unrecognized documents in libraries and museums and for comparative historical studies. New catalogs of intuitive biographies, ranging over various ages, cultures and notable persons, could be compiled to inspire these future efforts,.

Intuitive history has its proper place in the growing accumulation of collective knowledge about man and his development and evolution on planet Earth. It can help lead you to the underlying and eternal message that human history is urging you to recognize and understand: who you are as a growing human being; what you are doing here on this planet; how your values and ideals express themselves in your actions over time, and how you may responsibly and consciously shape your own destiny.

________________

Expand references
  • Aldred, Cyril, Akhnaten and Nefertiti (Viking, 1973).
  • Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson 1988).
  • Anon1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiye
  • Anon2. http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/browse_tomb_869.html
  • Anon3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KV55Breasted, J. H., A History of Egypt (Scribners & Sons, 1933).
  • Budge, E. A. Wallis, The Gods of the Egyptians (Methuen, 1904, Dover, 1969).
  • Carter, Howard, and A. C. Mace, The Tomb of Tutankhamen (3 vols.) (Cassell, 1930-33).
  • Christie, Agatha, Akhnaten. Play written in 1937, never officially performed.Cone, Polly, Wonderful Things: The Discovery of Tutankhamun’s Tomb, New York Metropolitan Museum of Art (Acorn Books, 1976).
  • Cummins, Geraldine, Beyond Human Personality: being a detailed description of the future life purporting to be communicated by the late F.W.H. Myers (London: Ivor Nicholson & Watson, 1935).
  • Cummins, Geraldine, The Childhood of Jesus (London: The Psychic Book Club, 1937, 1972); www.trans4mind.com/spiritual/cummins/cummins3.html.
  • Cummins, Geraldine, The Manhood of Jesus, Parts I & II (London: The Psychic Book Club, 1949, 1950); www.trans4mind.com/spiritual/cummins/cummins3.html.
  • Cummins, Geraldine, The Road to Immortality: Being a Description of the Afterlife Purporting to be Communicated by the Late F. W. H. Myers (London: Ivor Nicholson, 1932, 1955).
  • Cummins, Geraldine, The Scripts of Cleophas: A Reconstruction of Primitive Christian Documents (1928); Paul in Athens (1939); After Pentacost (1945) (London: The Psychic Book Club and/or Rider & Co).
  • Cummins, Geraldine, The Fate of Colonel Fawcett. (Aquarian 1955, Health Research 1985)
  • Drury, Allen, A God Against The Gods (Doubleday, 1976).
  • Erman, A., Life in Ancient Egypt (Dover, 1971).
  • Foucart, G., “Imhotep,” Revue de l’Histoire des Religions. 48:362 (1903).
  • Fleming,  Peter (1933). Brazilian Adventure.  [travel literature about a search for Fawcett[
  • Fawcett, Percy and Brian Fawcett. Exploration Fawcett. (Phoenix Press, 1953, 2001).
  • Fawcett, Percy and Brian Fawcett. Lost Trails, Lost Cities. (Funk & Wagnalls 1953).
  • Fawcett, Brian. Ruins In The Sky. (Hutchinson of London, 1958).
  • Gardiner, A. H., Egypt of the Phaoros: An Introduction (Oxford, 1962); pp. 72-73.
  • Gauthier, H., “Un nouveau monument de dieu Imhotep,” Bulletin de l’Institute Francais d’Archeologie. 14 (1918).
  • Giles, F. J., Ikhnaton: Legend and History (Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972).
  • Glass, Philip, Robert T. Jones, Akhnaten: An Opera In Three Acts. (Harper Row, 1987); Libretto, Philip Glass, (Pennsylvania: Dunvagen Music, 1984).
  • Hawass, Z. et al. (2010). “Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family”. JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association 303(7): 638–47.
  • Heckenberger, M. J. (2009). Lost cities of the Amazon. Scientific American, 301(4):64-71.
  • Hurry, J. B., Imhotep, the Vizier and Physician of King Zoser and Afterwards the Egyptian God of Medicine, 2nd Ed’n (Oxford Univ. Press, 1928, 1978).
  • Kautz, William H. & Kevin Ryerson, A New Jesus: Rediscovering his Deeper Teachings Through Intuitive Inquiry (iUniverse, 2011).
  • Kautz, William. The Story of Jesus: An Intuitive Anthology (Trafford, 2012).
  • Kautz, William H. “The Intuitive Historian: Reconstruction of the Life of Imhotep.” Phoenix: New Directions in the Study of Man, IV(1,2):61+ (1980).
  • Redford, D. B.  Akhenaten, The Heretic King (Princeton Univ. Press, 1984).
  • Roberts, Jane. The Afterdeath Journal of an American Philosopher: The World View of William James (Prentiss Hall, 1978).
  • Roberts, Jane. The World View of Paul Cezanne: A Psychic Interpretation (Prentice Hall, 1977b).
  • Roberts, Jane. Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul. (Prentice Hall, 1972)
  • Roberts, Jane. The Nature of Personal Reality. (Prentice Hall, 1974; Bantam, 1988)
  • Sethe, K. “Imhotep, der Askepios der Aegypter,” Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Aegyptens, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1902).
  • Silverberg, R. Akhnaten: The Rebel Pharaoh (Chilton, 1964).
  • Waltari, Mika. The Egyptian (Putnam, 1949). 

Endnotes

  1. This first section is derived from this author’s article (Kautz, 1980), which was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Anthropological Association, March 29-31,1979, in Santa Barbara, California, as part of the Symposium ”Anthropology and the Psychic: Search for a New Paradigm,” organized by Shirley W. Lee.
  2. Aron Abrahamsen [AA], Annette Martin [AM], Barbara Rowan [BR], Gabrielle Blackburn [GB], Lenora Huett [LH] and Deborah Reynolds [DR], designated in the text by their initials in brackets [ … ].
  3. The individual intuitive contributors are indicated here by their initials in brackets […].
  4. A possible tomb of Imhotep was systematically excavated in 1964 in an area of the Saqqara necropolis by the late Walter B. Emery of the Egypt Exploration Society, but he found no positive identification.
  5. See endnote #2 for the list of participating expert intuitives.
  6. Tombs of Akhnaten, Nefertiti, Tiye and other family members were located in 2006-7 near Tut’s tomb. Most of their identities were resolved in 2010 by DNA analysis. (Hawass 2010, Anon2, Anon3)
  7. Reberts’ extensive collection of writings are now archived in the Yale University Library.

Last modified: February 21, 2017